Our DESALX® technology removes multivalent cations (such as calcium and magnesium), and then multivalent anions (such as sulphate) in a single unit process. DESALX® is a 2-stage process which consists of two CIF® (continuous ionic filtration) modules in series. Monovalent ions such as sodium and chloride pass through the system, avoiding creating a saline brine. DESALX® produces a gypsum based brine which can be paired with existing lime precipitation systems on site to produce gypsum solids for a true zero liquid discharge (ZLD) solution. If lime precipitation isn’t available, DESALX® can be used with a high density sludge (HDS) clarifier to achieve ZLD.

Process Description

Each CIF® module in DESALX® comprises a series of four columns, each designed for a specific function – ionic filtration, resin cleaning, resin regeneration and resin washing. CIF® uses a moving bed of charged beads to attract and remove ionic species through ion exchange from water whilst filtering the water of suspended solids. Resins are cycled between columns hourly using an air lift pump allowing continuous operation and regeneration of the system. Moving resins in counter-flow to the water being treated allows for efficient ion exchange, and DESALX® typically uses lower cost sulphuric acid and lime for resin regeneration.

desalx eng
Example Layout of DESALX® Technology


DESALX® provides the following advantages:

  1. Low OPEX, zero liquid discharge capable solution
  2. Membrane free, with no scaling/fouling issues
  3. No pre-treatment required
  4. Continuous movement of fixed bed resins to remove suspended solids
  5. Only removes multivalent cations and anions, producing a gypsum based brine instead of a saline brine to remove the need for expensive evaporation ponds or evaporators
  6. Uses sulphuric acid and lime instead of more expensive hydrochloric acid and caustic to regenerate resins
  7. Minimal power requirements
  8. Synergises with RO by removing scale forming ions and allowing higher RO recovery
  9. Fully automatic system that adjusts for feed water quality and flowrate


Typical IndustriesDESALX® is Typically Used to Remove
Mining Water – removal of metal ions and sulphates from mine pit water, tailings dams, and water affected by acid mine drainage.Hardness
Groundwater Treatment – removal of sulphates, metal ions and hardness to treat water for useSulphates


Case Studies

1. Gold Mine, Australia

gold mine

Clean TeQ Water installed an 80m3/h water treatment plant that uses arsenc/antimony precipitation, followed by DESALX® to achieve the water quality required for aquifer reinjection. DESALX® reduces the hardness and sulphate concentrations in the water and acts as a pre-treatment for the RO on site to reduce operating expenditures when water is required to be reused. Water recovery is in excess of 90% and the system is fully automated in order to achieve a consistent water quality across the required range of flowrates.

SpeciesUnitFeed WaterProduct Water
Total Dissolved Solidsppm7,4005,848
Iron (soluble)ppm50.1

2. Antimony Ore Roasting Plant, Oman

Oman clean 1 2

Clean TeQ Water provided a 0.5MLD plant in Oman which uses DESALX® to remove hardness and sulfates before water continues to RO. The plant produces industrial quality water which is reused as process water, in a zero liquid brine solution.

SpeciesUnitFeed WaterProduct Water
Total TDSppm2,650280
Cations (meq/L)38.883.35
Anions (meq/L)38.964.95
Gypsum Waste (kg/h) 28

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